When, Why and How to Ask for Prepayments and Extra Payments As an Expert Witness

Should you ask for a retainer? Yes, you should. If a case appears simple, a modest retainer fee equivalent to two or three hours of your consulting rate may be fair. You can reduce your initial retainer fee under special circumstances or for limited scope of work. In the same fashion, you can raise your retainer at other times when the initial work will be dramatically larger. After assessing how many hours of initial work you will need to undertake, let that guide you to the size of your retainer.

Be particular about the initial expectations so that you can quantify the initial retainer. Ask, and agree, on the materials you must read, the research or investigations you must complete, and consider what tests you must run. Confirm your understanding with an email, a fax or a letter, depending on the urgency of the work. Then, wait until you've received the retainer check or payment before starting the work. If the attorney tells you that the job is urgent, send him wire transfer information so that he can wire your retainer directly to your bank account. This can easily happen in a 24-hour period.

Always ask for an initial payment before you begin work on a case or you might end up working for nothing. If, by the end of the case, the hours you spent did not consume the retainer, you should refund the difference.

Occidentally an attorney will ask you to do work for free. A free first telephone conversation representatives goodwill and can be an encouragement to engage you when the case seems right. Doing analysis or research for advocates and charging them nothing is unprofessional. On the other hand, you can certainly consider pro-bono work from time to time, just as attorneys occasionally do.

One novel element remains to consider. As your reputation grows, attorneys will sometimes retain you just to be sure that the other side can not employ you. As a result, you should value the use of your name as an expert witness, and considering imposing a minimum fee whenever an attorney wants to retain you. You can apply this minimum charge against services, so it will have no impact on the total cost to the client unless the attorney never uses your services.

In my retainer contract, my terms require both an advance retainer and a replenishment of all or part of the retention from time to time. The amount of replenishment depends on what additional work the attorney requires of me. Some experts require that the attorney or client maintain a minimum retainer. To do so, you should bill to restore that minimum whenever the balance in the pre-paid account for the client falls below a specific level. Ask for new advance payments whenever it becomes similar that additional work will deplete the existing balance in the client's account.

Typically, your client will not have to replenish the retainer if the additional work only requires one to several hours. But you should request advance payment in the following instances:

1. If a sudden surge occurs in discovery materials for your review.

2. If your attorney requests that you travel for conferences and meetings.

3. If any investigations require you to travel to job sites or company offices for observations, meetings, and any other explorations.

4. If your deposition has been scheduled. You will have to reserve a variable number of days in your schedule for the deposition, for a pre-deposition conference, and possibly for the travel time as well.

5. If a trial has been scheduled; you will have the same factors of blocking out time for possible travel, meetings, and testimony.

You should also estimate airfare, hotel, car, and food expenses as well. You can contain those in requested advance payments. If you ask for advance payments, ask for them well in advance. Larger companies often have processing delays for invoices or payment requests. You do not want those delays to stand in the way of your work. Do not wait until the last minute to ask for advance payment. Your business needs to be organized enough to estimate the size of advance payments. You can base those payments on discussions with the attorney about the progress of the case and what work you expect will be required of you.

The most important advance payment is the one that precedes a trial. Be firm in asking for advance payment for your anticipated billings before traveling to testify at a trial. Clients have now spent a large sum of money by the time a trial begins. If the client loses in the trial, he either may not be able, or choose not, to pay you. But because he needs your testimony at the trial, put the pressure on him to pay beforehand and not on you to collect afterwards.

Receiving advance payment for your trial testimony time permits you to respond "No" to the potential cross examining question of whether the client owes you any money.

If the client has now paid you, you can honestly point out that the verdict in the case will have no affect on your testimony.

All About ASAP, FYI and FYA

ONE day, a collegeague turned to me and asked, "What's FYI?"

"For your information."

"What's FYA?"

"For your action."

"What's WRT? "

"With reference to …"

Before the conversation dragged on any further, I quickly looked up a website on acronyms used in business communications and sent it to him via e-mail.

This conversation made me realize that the full meaning of many acronyms and abbreviations may not be immediately obvious for many people – students or working adults alike.

For starters, an acronym is a word created from combining the initial letters of each word. For example, For your action.

An abbreviation is a word shortened from its original form. For example, "Attn." is an abbreviation of the word "attention" to convey the meaning "for the attention of".

In general, a full stop is used for abbreviations where the last letter of the word and the abbreviation are not the same. For example, "Co." (Company) needs a full stop but "Ltd" (Limited) does not. Acronyms do not need punctuation marks.

Below are some frequently used short forms in business communication like e-mails, faxes and letters:

aka . – also known as

On Monday morning, Kay El, aka The Boss, walked in happily and blessed her assistant, Pee Jay.

approx. – approx

Checking her e-mail, Pee Jay read, "Today is the boss's birthday. Can everyone please slip off quietly to the cafeteria in approx. 15 minutes?"

ASAP – as soon as possible

Pee Jay opened up her daily planner and scribbled ASAP next to some of the urgent items on her to-do list.

Attn . – for the attention of

Leafing through the stack of mail to be sent out, Pee Jay asked her boss, "To what should I address the cheque for the annual report?"

Her boss replied, "Just write 'Attn: Ms. Christine Jalleh." She'll know what to do with it. "

Bcc . – blind carbon copy or blind copy to. In this case, the carbon copy is sent to an e-mail recipient which e-mail address is not visible to the cc or other bcc recipients.

"By the way, I think it's better if you bcc me in your e-mail to Brown. We would not want him thinking that I'm supervising you for this project."

Cc . – carbon copy, or copy to

"But I would like to be cc-ed on the e-mail to Mr Green as I have not yet introduced the two of you to each other."

c / o – in care of, used when sending a document to A who will receive it on B's because because B is away from the office.

"Boss, I think Christine is back in China this week. Would it be all right if I sent the cheque in care of her assistant? I'll still write her name on top with c / o Ah Sis Tern below."

COD – cash on delivery, where a person makes payment for an item purchase after it has been delivered.

"I'm also sending out the cheque for the set of Business English reference books we bought COD on eBay."

eg . – exempli gratia (for example)

Pee Jay replied to the e-mail, "Hi everyone. Please remember that the boss does not like surprises, eg everyone shouting 'Surprise!' in the cafeteria. "

et al. – et alii (and others). Usually used to list co-authors after the lead author in a bibliography, this form is now commonly used to address the other people other than the recipient in e-mails.

She received a new e-mail, which read, "Dear Pee Jay et al., I was reminded that the boss does NOT like surprises …"

etc. – et cetera (and so on OR and so forth)

This means that we will not be able to collectively surprise her by springing out of the cafeteria doors as we had planned, etc.

exc. – except

"Can everyone, exc. Pee Jay, be at the cafeteria in 5 minutes? We need to figure out a surprise without the surprise element.

FYI – for your information

Her boss's voice bought the young assistant back to the present, "Pee Jay, I'm forwarding you all these e-mails FYI, okay?"

FYA – for your action

"Note that some of these e-mails are FYA …"

ie . – id est (that is)

After acknowledging her supervisor, Pee Jay decided to help her collections out and typed, "She's in a good mood today, ie we will be a new account and completed a major project."

K – thousand, eg 450K = 450,000

"Just to give you an idea of ​​her mood, it's a 450K retainer for the first quarter …"

PA – personal assistant

The immediate reply to Pee Jay's e-mail read, "Thanks for the info, Pee Jay – you're the best PA!"

pa – per annual (per year)

Pee Jay smiled and responded, "Haha, there is a reason why I'm paid RM65K pa"

pp – per pro (used when signing a document on someone's behalf)

Looking back at her paperwork, Pee Jay signed some invoices on her boss's behalf, inserting pp just before her signature.

Pto. – please turn over, used at the end of a page to indicate that there is a continuity to the text.

"By the way, please remember to type Pto. On the first page of the proposal you're sending.

viz . – videlicet, namely

She got up and left a note on Pee Jay's work station before leaving. Scribbled on it was, "Can I pass you my slice of birthday cake after I cut it? I really do not need a lot of carbo, viz. Refined flour, at my age." The note ended with a wink.

Readers can go to http://www.acronymfinder.com/ to search for the meanings of over 4 million acronyms and abbreviations. This online dictionary also allows users to filter their search according to categories like information technology (IT), military and government, business and finance, science and medicine, organizations and schools, and slang and pop culture.

Novel Netware Network Operating System

This is an operating system that has the capabilities of supporting information and resources sharing between network computers. It provides an influence between workstation in a network.

Network Operating System Services includes:

File and resource sharing – Is the fundamental requirement for a network ie is the reason behind networking computers.

Configurability and usability – configuration and use should be easy paper documentation, electronic format, books should be provided for a first time user to get the network up and running.

Support – any kind of useful information should always be available.

Types of Network Operating System:

Novel Netware
• It is the first NOS to support the multiple platforms
• It was the first NOS to support multiple and varying topologies and routines between this different topologies
• Novel Netware servers typically outperform other network servers because it is by design network operating system

Features of Novel NOS include:

• Novel directory services (NOS)

NDS offering is what makes a novel a strong competitor of Windows NT. It uses X.500 standard and therefore prevent the creation of duplicate objects. Each object has a distinguish name (DN). Because NDS directory services is displayed in neat graphically arranged order, objects such as users, printers, workstations and application servers are sharing an organization structure to the system administration user. You can log in as the administrator user from any workstation. This enables you to manage the entire directory tree. You can add and remove user's services and other network resources. Users need to log only once in order to gain access to all network resources.

• Security Services

All passwords flows back and forth from the Netware server to the client workstation in an encrypted format, even the administrator can not look at user's password on the server. The administrator can remove and add users permission but only the users know their own password, even if users get to physical Netware server, they have no greater access to resources that would have on their own workstation is build into the network system because Netware security is build into the Netware system of the lowest level. All attempts to access information or resources on the network go through on the network security system.

• Database services

Provide a central repository for information on the server, the major database management system available is
Netware C – a database record management system index with a database key for easy development for vertical application.

Netware SQL – standard used for accessing records stored in relational database system.
Oracle DBMS – it is SQL based system used primarily business critical application in different lines of business.

• Messaging services

Provide a messaging service called Netware message handling service. This provides ease of message, transmission between many fronted applications. This application can share data over the LANs and Novel word.

• Print services

Allows up to 16 printers to be shared per print server on the Network and therefore a real flexibility of printing, Printers need not to be attached to the actual print server in order to be operated.

• Netware loadable machine (NLM)

Netware loadable modules are maintained by Novel Netware operation. It provide the power needed to support hierarchy used network services in the server. have the same access to the Netware security services making them same to control and monitor.

Advantages of the Novel Netware
Has the print and file server software in the business and its sharing of files and printers that makes a network important and useful. Has the best LAN NOS directory service.

Disadvantages
As an application server its failures as Windows NT beats it on this case. Poor at printing data / information network status and management. It has build in network management tools that are not powerful.

Definition of Interpersonal Communication and Its Importance to Your Relationships

The definition of interpersonal communication is simply any verbal or nonverbal message transferred between people.

What this means to your interpersonal relationships is that you may be sending unintended messages which are misinterpreted by the person receiving these messages.

Worse yet, you may be neglecting to discuss the important topics that will lead to a healthy relationship and avoid an abusive or unsatisfying one.

These simple oversights may be seriously impacting your interpersonal relationships.

Interpersonal Humor

Interpersonal humor as well as relationship quotes can give you insight into how you can be strengthening interpersonal skills to be a more effective communicator.

This is especially important when you are considering letting go of a relationship and need to know how to end that relationship.

Learning how to improve interpersonal communication will help increase your relationship compatibility thereby making your situation much more enjoyable.

How To Improve Interpersonal Communication

Having a working definition of interpersonal communication is only the first step in maintaining good interpersonal relationships.

When you are seeking relationship problem advice to have your relationship problems solved you will need a framework to structure your interpersonal communication around. By being able to succinctly define what the problems are in your relationship you will then be able to accurately make corrections.

Knowing the definition of interpersonal communication is useless unless you are capable of organizing your thoughts to ask pertinent questions.

The information (personal communication) you receive in response to your questions will then have to be analyzed and acted upon to improve your interpersonal relationships.